A Scholarly Analysis of Adl’ilahi - the Divine Justice- in the Light of the Opinions of Muslim Theologians
This essay discusses the topic of Justice of God (‘Adl’ilahi) with reference to the issue of free will and predestination and the position of the various schools of Islamic theology regarding it. The opinion of the Mu’tazili, who believed in complete free will of man, stood opposed to that of the Asha’ira who considered the actions of men to be predetermined by Divine ordainment. The Imamia’h, on the other hand, believed in a position between these two extremes.The study further discusses the difference amongst the theologians in identifying goodness of a good deed with itself, and the evil of an evil act as inherent within it. This was the position of the Mu’tazila and the Imamia’h whereas the Asha’ira believed that it was the shari’ah that granted the goodness or evilness to any act.Finally, the apparent contradiction between the Justice of God and the presence of evil in this world is addressed and reconciled.
Keywords: ‘Adl’ilahi, Mu'tazila, Asha’ira, Jafar Sadiq, Qur’an
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