Foremost & Primary Books of the Science of ‘elal al ḥadīth: An Introductory and Methodological Study

  • Yasir Farooq PhD. Scholar, IIS, University of the Punjab, Lahore. Lecturer, Department of Islamic Studies, Govt. Municipal Degree College, Faisalabad.
  • Prof. Dr. Ghulam Ali Khan Professor, Institute of Islamic Studies, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
Keywords : Science of ‘elal, Principles of Ḥadīth, Moḥadithīns, Defected Aḥādīth, Prophetic Narrations


Science of ‘elal (hidden defects) has a great influence on ḥadīth and its sciences regarding acceptance or rejection of any ḥadīth as well as declaring it impractical. Since the Compilation of ḥadīth and establishing its sciences & principles, Moḥadithīns have paid a huge attention on this science especially to prevent aḥādīth from hidden defects and possible miscommunications of narrators. As it is reality, from the beginning, Moḥadithīns wrote a large amount of books containing of the symbolic principles, examples, precedents from defected aḥādīth as well as rules to find these hidden defects (‘elal) and their possible places in chain of ḥadīth and text. This paper encompassed a methodological study of selected famous and basic sources of the said science and its principles, in which, author has presented methodology of foremost books of this science. The analytical method has been used in this study to examine these books and their importance & significance. The author finds that these books had a great impact on all other books written in the same domain or subject due to their vast canvas and full of all principles and scientifically discussions. Mostly books written after these books, rely on them un-doubtfully. In the certain time, these books may be accessed for multi-purposes i.e. to find defected aḥādīth, to assess status of specific ḥadīth, to evaluate a narrator’s position with subject to his authenticity or rejection.

How to Cite
FAROOQ, Yasir; KHAN, Prof. Dr. Ghulam Ali. Foremost & Primary Books of the Science of ‘elal al ḥadīth: An Introductory and Methodological Study. Journal of Religious Studies, [S.l.], v. 3, n. 2, p. 16-35, aug. 2020. ISSN 2663-0206. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 27 feb. 2021. doi: